(by S. Miyauchi, Professional Engineer, Doctor of Engineering, JSME Fellow)

**<About Kyoto and Kyoto University** **>**

Kyoto Univ. and its institutes such as Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences and Institute for Research in Humanities are one of world's leading knowledge center from the natural sciences to the humanities sciences, and have produced a large number of famous scientists (professors and graduates) as belows. In addition, almost all graduates including me love Kyoto by these long cultures and beautiful scenery (especially, gardens of temples).

__(1) Mathematics__

Mathematics other than physical mathematics is difficult and boring for me, but the following is a great achievement as a **pure thought of human beings** which produce **one complete world** which computer cannot make forever.

① Oka Kiyoshi (岡潔) solved the three major problems of the theory of functions of several complex variables.

He also opened the way to modern mathematics (the concept of sheaf) with H. P. Cartan et al..

* Like Yukawa and Tomonaga (described later), Oka opened up the horizon of knowledge by stand alone in the period when Japan was isolated from the world before and after the World War Ⅱ.

② Hironaka Heisuke (広中平祐) and Mori Shigefumi (森重文) inherited the horizon that Oka had opened up and received the Fields Award. Sato Mikio (佐藤幹夫) made Sato's hyperfunctions.

③ Nagata Masayosi (永田雅宜) proved Hilbert's 14th problem by counter example.

④ Stochastic differential equation made by Ito Kiyoshi (伊藤清) is currently used in various fields including financial engineering. He received the 1st Gauss award in 2006.

* When I heard his retired memorial lecture in 1979, his serious academic attitude was very impressive.

⑤ Ueda Yoshisuke (上田睆亮) is one of the founders of chaos theory (Ueda attractor).

⑥ In 2012, Mochizuki Shinichi (望月新一) claimed to make a proof for a extremely complex problem "abc conjecture" of number theory.

* The paper uses a new and difficult mathematical theory even for mathematicians to understand.

Thus peer review has not yet ended.

* If this paper is correct, it will be the most difficult and longest (600 pages) article in world history.

__(2) Physics__

① Particle physics was opened by Yukawa Hideki (湯川秀樹) using meson theory. Next, competing with M. Gell-Mann and G. Zweig each other, Sakata Shoichi (坂田昌一), Maskawa Toshihide (益川敏英) and Kobayashi Makoto (小林誠) developed it to quark using group theory (special unitary group SU(n)).

② Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) is the most precise theory in the history of science. Using renormalization,

Tomonaga Shinichiro (朝永振一郎) established it together with J. S. Schwinger and R. Ph. Feynman who and M. Gell-Mann and of course Th. von Kármán would be popular in Caltech.

He provide many other essential and advanced ideas and methods for quantum mechanics and condensed physics, etc.

③ In astrophysics, Hayashi Chushiro (林忠四郎) studied stellar evolution such as Hayashi track.

Sato Fumitaka (佐藤文隆) resolved one of Einstein equation (TS solution).

Sato Katsuhiko (佐藤勝彦) proposed cosmic inflation (exponential expansion model) with A. Guth and others.

__(3) Chemical__

Fukui Kenichi (福井謙一) is famous by frontier orbital theory.

And Noyori Ryoji (野依良治) by asymmetric catalyst. They received the Nobel prize.

__(4) Life science__

① In immunology, Tonegawa Susumu (利根川進, Nobel prize) and Honjo Tasuku (本庶佑).

② Yamanaka Shinya (山中伸弥) made iPS cells and received the Nobel prize.

③ In genetics, Kihara Hitoshi (木原均) redefined genome and discovered the ancestry of cultivated wheat.

Kimura Motoo (木村資生) proposed the neutral theory of molecular evolution.

__(5) humanities__

① In Archeology and Oriental History, there are many famous researchers in Japan and Chinese history.

② In cultural anthropology, monkey studies and tropical rainforest studies, many researchers observe gorillas and chimpanzees in the field of rainforests in Africa. In Indonesia, also many researchers observe the crown of trees height of several tens of meters above the ground.

__(6) Recent Science and Technology__

① Akasaki Isamu (赤﨑勇) invented blue light emitting diode and get Nobelpriset i fysik in 2014.

② kanade Takeo (金出武雄) invented image recognition. He is so famous as the man who put the robot eyes .

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